Journal of Insect Science Online Submissions System

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Author Guidelines

Guidelines for Submission of Manuscripts

Each submission must include the following:
A message to the Editor. This message should state the hypothesis of the manuscript and what it adds to scientific knowledge. You should state if there been any previous correspondence with JIS regarding this manuscript. Do not suggest potential reviewers: JIS will not use them.

The manuscript must include the figures and tables at the end of the manuscript after the references. Appropriate legends must accompany the figures and tables.

The tables must also be submitted separately from the manuscript as Excel or Word files.

The figures must also be submitted separately from the manuscript as .jpg or .png files.

Guidelines for writing the manuscript

There is no limitation on the length of a manuscript. JIS does not distinguish short communications from longer ones.

The organization of a manuscript is up to the authors. However, all manuscripts should show the title, list of authors, institutional addresses, email addresses of ALL of the authors, and keywords (keywords must be different from those in the title).

Recent decisions by Google mail have resulted in JIS mail being blocked. Please avoid using a gmail address.

Most manuscripts include an Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements and References. Reviews and taxonomic papers do not follow this organization.

Combining the results and discussion is discouraged.

Fonts, manuscript design, equations:
The manuscript should be written as a Word document. Use Times New Roman as the font, font size 12
- Do not indent paragraphs
- Lines should be numbered (continuously, not by page)
- Page breaks should not be used anywhere in the text
- Dividing the text into sections and using subtitles can be helpful to the reader, but sections should not be numbered
- Please provide images of equations

Abbreviations:
JIS discourages the use of abbreviations. Their use makes the text difficult to follow as the reader must continually try to remember what they mean.

- Abbreviations should not be used for the species name (use H. zea, not CBW), common names should not be used in place of species names (use ‘B. mori’, not ‘silkworm’).

- Standard abbreviated words can be used without definition: DNA, RNA, PCR, g, mg, µg, mL, µL,.

Species names
The common name and full species names with authority and taxonomy of all organisms used in the experiments must be given in the Abstract and the first use in the text e.g. the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Thereafter the genus name should be abbreviated: S. invicta.

For species not used in the experiments do not give the authority or taxonomy. Giving both the common name and species name is helpful to the reader.

The Title
The title should be concise and include the common names and species names (without authority or taxonomy). Avoid abbreviations in the title, except for standards such as DNA, PCR, etc.

Authors
Names can be a source of confusion as they are used differently in different countries and cultures. A major source of confusion can be defining what the first name and last name means. If this is done incorrectly it will be very difficult to use author names to search for a paper. We use the western standard of given name, middle name and family name, with apologies to those that use the eastern format. The western format is widely used for international journals.

The order of names should be: given name, middle name (or initial), family name.

All authors must have contributed to the work that can include conception, design, execution, analysis and interpretation. Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the laboratory does not confer authorship. Honorary or guest authorship is not acceptable. The first author is responsible for the integrity of the work, ensuring that the data obtained from all authors are complete, accurately presented and interpreted.

Colleagues that contributed to the work, but do not qualify as authors, should be mentioned in the text (e.g., specimens were identified to species by S. S. Smith) and in the Acknowledgements (e.g., we thank S. S. Smith, Department of YYY, University of XXX, city, state, for species identification).

Please carefully consider who the authors should be. Authors will not be changed after submission.

Use a superscript number to link an author to an institution. Use a superscript letter to link an author to an email address (e.g., S. S. Smith1a and Y. Y. Yin2b). Email addresses of all authors must be included. Correspondence will be sent to all authors. At the time of publication one, or more, authors can be chosen as the corresponding authors.

The Abstract
The abstract should state the hypotheses, briefly describe the techniques used, and summarize the results. Details of the results should not be included, instead focus on the statistical significance of the results. Abbreviations should be avoided except for common usage terms such as DNA, PCR etc. Citations should never be included.

The abstract should include the common and full species names with authority and taxonomy for all of the organisms studied, including animals, plants, and microorganisms.

The Introduction
The introduction should discuss the background in terms that would be understood by all members of the scientific community, not just specialists in the topic area. It should include a brief description of previous work and include key references, but you should not cite every paper published on the topic. It should describe your hypotheses and the specific problem being addressed. Why did you choose this problem? Why is it interesting? Conclude by stating what you learned.

Materials and Methods
Your goals in this section are to describe how you did this work in sufficient detail so that it could be replicated by qualified colleagues. If you are using a new method it must be described in detail. If you modify a method then the changes must be described in detail. Even if the method is well established, and you can cite a reference that does describe it in detail, what you did must be understandable. Err on the side of providing too much detail.
If your manuscript is a descriptive paper (e.g., biodiversity etc.) or a field study describe when and where the work was done. Give the coordinates of the location. Describe the relevant plants and animals present in the location (include common names, species names, authority and taxonomy). Specify if endangered or protected species were studied or sampled.

- Protocols, for example, times and temperatures used for PCR, steps used in preparing tissues for microscopy, descriptions of how an extract was prepared, must be described in detail. The source of cell lines must be given.

- Provide URLs for companies that you purchased materials from i.e., Sigma, (www.sigmaaldrich.com). State levels of purity of chemicals used. Provide information on the conditions used for incubation of animals or samples i.e., temperatures, relative humidity, dark/light schedule.

- Sequences should be deposited in a publically available database such as GenBank, ENA, DDBJ, UniProt, etc.. Accession numbers must be provided in the text in parentheses after the first mention in the text.

- Samples of organisms, cell lines, or tissues used or studied should be deposited in a museum or other storage facility.

- Do not use personal pronouns i.e., I did this and then I did that. Put the emphasis on what you did not who did it. The list of authors makes it clear who did it.

- Equations should be images. Do not include equations for simple calculations, e.g., calculating a percentage.

- Describe the statistical tests you used in detail. Provide references or cite URLs that describe these tests. Editors and reviewers will often reject papers for poor statistical analysis. Experiments should be designed to provide the data needed for the desired type of analysis. The advice of a statistician is a worthwhile investment. When reporting levels of significance use p <0.05 for a significant difference and p <0.01 for a highly significant difference. There is no super significant level above 0.01 that makes sense biologically.

Results
This section should describe the results, and describe how you interpret the results with reference to the hypotheses described in the introduction.

- Do not combine the results and discussion. It is almost always easier for the reader if your results are discussed in the Results and the results of other workers are described in the Discussion.

- - Unpublished work can be mentioned in the text as “unpublished data”, or “unpublished observations” and the source of this information should be clear, e.g., (unpublished data, S. S. Smith). The contribution of Smith should be cited in the acknowledgements.

- Spell out, and capitalize the words ‘Figure’ and ‘Table’.

- Data are placed in a table or text to make it easier for the reader to examine them. Do not repeat the data that is in a table in the text.

- Use the text to discuss the statistical significance of the data.

Discussion
- In this section you should first summarize your results. Do not repeat what you said in the results section. This summary should flow directly from the results, not from your opinion of the results, i.e., your reasoning should be obvious to the reader. You should discuss how the results relate to the hypotheses stated in the introduction. Are the hypotheses accepted or rejected? How does this affect future research?

- Then relate your results to what has been described in the literature. Use the past tense when discussing the literature.

- Personal pronouns are appropriate when you are distinguishing your work from the work of other people: "In contrast to Smith (1980) we found that ...". It is especially important to do this to make sure the reader knows that you are referring to your work, not the cited work. You can also use the personal pronoun to avoid clunky statements like ‘the present researchers found’. For example, ‘the results we obtained agree with the results of Jones et al. (2012)...’
- You can be more speculative in the conclusions, but it should be made obvious that your opinion is not necessarily supported by the data, i.e., ‘In our opinion the data suggest that...’. The conclusions can also include your suggestions for future research.

Acknowledgements
Include people who helped, what they did, and their institutional addresses. Include names and institutions of personal communications cited in text. Include information of grant support.

References
Only published or accepted papers should be included in the reference list. An accepted paper should be cited as “In press”.

- Manuscripts that have been submitted but not yet accepted cannot be cited.

- An abstract is not a citable reference.

References must be listed at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of the last name of the first author. Note punctuation, fully spelled out names of journals, and use of italics for journal names. Book titles and titles of theses should also be in italics.

Book citations
Adams BC. 1990. Strategies in the biological control of insects. In: Bass M, Call LE, Adams JP, Editors. pp. 66-83. Issues in Biological Control. Intercept.
Cohen AC. 2004. Insect Diets Science and Technology. CRC Press.

Grimaldi D, Engel MS. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press.

Journal citations
Griffin JN, de la Haye KL, Hawkins SJ, Thompson RC, Jenkins SR. 2008. Predator diversity and ecosystem functioning: Density modifies the effect of resource partitioning. Ecology 89: 298-305.

Kang L, Chen X, Zhou Y, Liu B, Zheng W, Li R, Wang J, Yu J. 2004. The analysis of large-scale gene expression correlated to the phase changes of the migratory locust. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101: 17611-17615.

Leal WS, Hasegawa M, Sawada M. 1992. Identification of Anomala schonfeldti sex pheromone by high-resolution GC-Behavior bioassay. Naturwissenschaften 79: 518–519.

Citations with doi
Mann WM. 1928. A new Microdon from Panama. Psyche 35(3): 168-170. doi:10.1155/1928/73806.

Whitehill JGA, Popova-Butler A, Green-Church KB, Koch JL, Herms DA, Bonello P. 2011. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer. PLoS ONE 6 (9): e24863. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024863

Institution
SAS Institute, Inc. 2006. SAS OnlineDoc®. Version 9.1.3. Available online: http://support.sas.com/onlinedoc/913/docMainpage.jsp

Citation with URL
Tschinkel WR. 2011. The nest architecture of three species of north Florida Aphaenogaster ants. Journal of Insect Science 11:105. Available online: http://www.insectscience.org/11.105

Thesis
Werling BP. 2009. Conserving natural areas to enhance biological control of Wisconsin potato pests: A multi–scale landscape study. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Foreign language
Zhou W, Wang R. 1989. Rearing of Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) with natural and artificial diets. Chinese Journal of Biological Control 5: 9-12. (in Chinese)

Guidelines for preparing figures
Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript after the References. A legend should be prepared for each figure. The legend should be above the figure and not part of the figure.

Figures should also be submitted separately from the manuscript in .png or .jpg. For high quality images, such as micrographs or detailed images, use .tiff. Such files can be very large. Use LZW to compress file size.

Image quality should be 300 ppi (pixels per inch).

Figures can be prepared using Adobe Photoshop, GIMP (freeware) or Inkscape (freeware).

Figures can be placed in the manuscript using Word/Edit/Paste Special/Picture. Size the figures for maximum visibility and allow the label to be on the same page. Do not use page breaks between figures.

Do not combine graphs, sequences or tables with images. Instead create separate files for each. Combining them will reduce quality.

For sequences use shading with care as dark shading may obscure the letters.

Avoid boxes, underlines or arrows that are not part of the document as they can be displaced. If they must be used, create an image of the sequence with them properly placed.

When figures are colored use RGB not CMYK. Use a bit depth of 8 bits per channel. Figures should be flattened before saving.

The background should be white. Do not use a transparent background. Do not allow empty space around the figure. That makes it harder to fit them on a page.

Figures should be no wider than 15 cm and higher than 20 cm.

Line graphs and black and white figures should also have a resolution of 300 ppi to ensure that the edges of the lines are crisp and lettering is readable.

Guidelines for preparing tables
Tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript after the Figures. A legend should be prepared for each table. The legend should be above the table. Footnotes should be below the table. You may create an image for the table inserted into the manuscript. This allows you to size the image. You can use Photoshop or GIMP to create the image. Insert the image using Word/Edit/Paste Special/Picture. Alternatively, you can copy the table in an Excel document and paste it into the manuscript using Word/Edit/Paste Special/Microsoft Word Document Object

Do not use page breaks between tables.

The tables must also be submitted separately from the manuscript in Excel or Word files. These files must not be images.

Wide tables will not fit on a page. Create long tables instead. Large or complicated tables can be submitted as supplemental information.

Tables must have
- headings for each column
- a single cell must include all values
- indicate headings with bold type
- use periods not commas for data: 167.36, not 167,36 (this is also true for the text).

Tables should not
- have empty columns, rows or cells
- use spaces within cells to center data
- put SD or SEM or levels of significance in separate cells

- Use merged cells to create a heading for multiple columns.
- The data must be in single cells
- Comparisons of significance can be used for means in rows or columns. You must be clear about what is being compared.

Guidelines for preparing multimedia files: sound and video
Adding a video or audio file can be a valuable addition to a manuscript. When preparing such a manuscript it is important that you reduce the length as much as possible. It often helps to divide the presentation into sections that are relevant to the points being made. For a video you might consider inserting text introducing each section, i.e., searching behavior, mating etc. The file should be no more than 10 MB. The quality of the file should be 128 kbits/s AAC audio and 480p H.264 video in MPEG-4 container.

You can create the file in any format. We will use VLC (freeware) for reviewer and reader viewing via streaming.

Preparing a taxonomic manuscript

New Species: Descriptions of new species must follow the ICZN (International Code for Zoological Nomenclature) for publishing descriptions of new species. The code is available online at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/

In 2012 the ICZN published new rules regarding the publication of new species descriptions in a digital format such as is used by JIS. See Zootaxa 3450: 1-7, 2012 available online at http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/list/2012/3450.html

These new rules allow us to register your new species in ZooBank, but your description has to comply with the ICZN code to be registered. Please be aware that you should avoid using new species names prior to publication in JIS. This includes using the names in abstracts or notices of papers to be delivered at meetings. Such information can be published and would pre-empt their publication in your paper.

Please note that you must also follow the Instructions for Authors including the reference style. The manuscript should be submitted as a .doc file with figures and tables after the references. You must also separately submit figures as .png and tables as .xls. DO NOT submit the manuscript as a PDF.

Format of the paper: As these papers use specialized terminology and formatting it will help if you read a taxonomic paper that we have published.

Some examples:

Mirab-balou M, Tong X-l, Chen X-x. 2012. A new species of Scirtothrips infesting Ginkgo biloba in eastern China. Journal of Insect Science 12:117. Available online at: http://www.insectscience.org/12.117/i1536-2442-12-117.pdf

Dai W, Viraktamath CA, Zhang Y. 2012. Ulopsina, a remarkable new ulopine leafhopper genus from China. Journal of Insect Science 12:70. Available online at: http://www.insectscience.org/12.70/i1536-2442-12-70.pdf

Hodgson, C. & Kondo, T. 2007. A second species of Etiennea (Coccidae: Coccoidea: Sternorrhyncha) from the New World. Journal of Insect Science 7:51. Available online at: http://www.insectscience.org/7.51/i1536-2442-2007-51.pdf

Kondo, T. 2006. A new African soft scale genus, Pseudocribrolecanium gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), erected for two species, including the citrus pest P. andersoni (Newstead) comb. nov. Journal of Insect Science. 6:1. Available online at: http://www.insectscience.org/6.01/i1536-2442-2006-01.pdf

The following recommendations were taken from the journal “Systematic Entomology” with a few modifications.

Papers must conform to the articles and recommendations of theInternational Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

New taxa must be clearly differentiated from existing taxa.

Holotypes, paratypes, lectotypes and neotypes must be deposited in a recognized scientific or educational institution that maintains a research collection, with proper facilities for preserving name-bearing types, and have them accessible for study.

New distributional and other noteworthy records should be documented by voucher specimens deposited in a museum or similar institution.
The abbreviations: gen.n., sp.n., syn.n. and comb.n. should be used to distinguish all new taxa, synonymies or new combinations. An author's name must follow the name of a taxon without any intervening punctuation, and a comma must be inserted between the name of the author and the date of publication. If a species is transferred from its original genus, the author's name must then be placed in parentheses. The name of a subsequent user of a scientific name must be separated from that of the original author by a semicolon or the word 'of'.

When describing new species, one specimen must be designated as the holotype, other specimens mentioned in the original description are to be listed as paratypes. Additional specimens studied, but not regarded as paratypes, should be listed separately.

For lectotype designations, consider Declaration 44, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 60(4), Dec. 2003, 263. The complete data of the holotype and paratypes, and the Institutions or museums in which they are deposited, must be recorded in the original description, e.g.:
Holotype: MEXICO, intercepted in USA, on Bursera sp., 3.ii.2005, B. Abijoy (USNM): adult ♀, young and in good condition.
Paratypes: data as for holotype (USNM): 4 adult ♀♀, in good condition but 1 partially sclerotised and other 3 heavily sclerotised.
Neotype: adult ♀, here designated (USNM). USA, Alabama, Auburn, 32°36'50''N, 85°28'50''W, 2.v.2006, coll. T. Kondo, ex Liriodendron tulipifera.

All material examined should be listed in similar format: localities should be cited in order of increasing precision as in the examples; names of countries should be in capitals. Sex symbols should be used rather than 'male' and 'female'.

 

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. All authors agree to its submission.
  2. If your manuscript is accepted JIS charges a publication fee of $800. The fee is necessary to cover the cost of hiring the Managing Editor, copy editors and formatters that ensure that your manuscript will be reviewed, edited and published promptly. The size of the fee has to offset the cost of keeping up with the increased number of manuscripts being submitted.

    The fee will be waived on request for authors from the following countries (adapted from PLOS One): Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Micronesia (Federated States of) , Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Moldova, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Republic of the Sudan, Republic of South Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Bank and Gaza Strip, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

    Authors from the following countries will pay a reduced fee of $300: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Thailand, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine.

    We are willing to negotiate a reduced fee for authors who cannot pay the full fees.
  3. All authors have contributed to the work which can include conception, design, execution, analysis, or interpretation. Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the laboratory does not confer authorship. Honorary or guest authorship is not acceptable. The first author (i.e., senior author) is responsible for the integrity of the work, ensuring that the data obtained from all authors are complete, accurately presented, and interpreted.
  4. This paper has not been submitted to another journal.
  5. The work described in the manuscript is original, and not copied from the work of others. The text is also original and not copied without attribution.
 

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